Sugar beet: the secrets of a great harvest
When using new technologies, the yield can reach 700-800 tons per hectare
In Almaty region the sugar beet growing areas are Eskeldinsky, Koksu, Karatal, Aksu and Sarkand districts. Earlier, in 2014, due to the difficult financial situation, and worn-out equipment of sugar beet mills, production and processing of sugar beet was curtailed. To pull the beet industry out of the deep crisis and to increase significantly sugar production in the past year was developed a program for sugar beet cultivation by the new technology and its processing at sugar factories. The program, first of all, took into account that the cultivation of sugar beet has to be in the new system of crop rotation schemes with the maximum possible reduction of manual labor on the formation of the density of planting of the plantation, i.e. based on intensive technology.
In the same year the program has been partially implemented on an area of 4020 hectares, there were produced 121.4 thousand tons of sugar beet with an average yield of 302 quintals per hectare. In some farms yield exceeded 700-800 quintals per 1 hectare. For example, the farm "Khilnichenko and K" in the area of 190 hectares was obtained yield of an average 750 quintals per hectare. These examples have been taken into account by the Center of Agrarian Competence of NCE RK "Atameken" during the formation of workshops for farmers. Therefore, training sessions for sugar beet started in Eskeldi District at the base economy "Khilnichenko and K". The lecturer, an expert on agricultural technologies of sugar beet, the candidate of agricultural sciences Abulkhair Beksultanov in his lecture suggested that farmers use inlaid, sugar-coated seeds of resistant varieties and hybrids, systemic herbicide "Dual-Gold”. Also, according to him, on the market there are intrants and mineral fertilizers (nitroammophos, ammonium nitrate, potassium salt).
"The most important micronutrients are boron, magnesium, manganese and molybdenum. Contents of micronutrients in most soils of the Almaty region, such as magnesium, manganese, molybdenum and iron, are sufficient to provide the needs of plants. At the same time, the presence of boron is not enough, cause of the need for its introduction. Lack of boron leads to disruption of plant development, especially the emergence of young leaves, the formation of vascular rings in the middle, due to which form hollow roots. The greatest need in boron is during the months of the phase of 10 - 12 leaves, when there is formation of a developed power outlet. Therefore, at this time it is required to use boron feed twice - 1 - 2% of boric acid or boron-containing fertilizer - MikrostimBor, MikrosilBor, Solyubor - a phase of 10 - 12 leaves, 30 days after the first feed with boron, 50g. is dissolved in 100 liters of water", - said the expert.
During the work the choice of the variety (14%) plays a great role, then the amount of nitrogen fertilizer (11%) and plant density (10%). Also, the absence of weeds is required between 4-8 weeks after sprouting beets. A practice shows infestation at this time can lead to lower yield to 25% or even total loss of the crop.
One of the key factors is specialized agricultural machinery. As an example, the expert presented a precision pneumatic sowers (Multicorn brand, Accord Optima, Todak) capable to sow 300 hectares within 20 days.
"Compactors-combiners for seedbed in one go loosen and crush boulders, leveling and compacting the soil. These mechanisms contribute to the art in fewer passes across the field and thus excessive soil compaction. Beet harvester SF 10-2 (F. Klyayne) beet loader RL-200 are used for crop harvesting ", - he said.
The expert notes that the increase in the mass of roots and increase in the sugar content occurs in September, October and even in warm weather in November. Early cleaning reduces sugar yield per hectare, and late harvesting endangers loss of crops due to adverse weather conditions - snow, prolonged rains, frost.
"In September, the yield increased by 15-30%, sugar - by 1.38-1.82%. Periods of harvesting root crops should be set depending on the area, in such a way to ensure the finish of harvesting by the end of October ", - summed up Beksultanov.